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The Melikian Center: Russian, Eurasian East European Studies
Glossary

Climate sensitivity: The amount of warming we can expect when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reaches double what it was before the industrial revolution. There are two ways to express climate sensitivity: Transient Climate Response (TCR) is the warming at Earth’s surface we can expect at the point of doubling, while Equilibrium Climate Sensitivity (ECS) is the total amount of warming once the Earth has had time to adjust fully to the extra carbon dioxide.

Climate sensitivity: The amount of warming we can expect when carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reaches double what it was before the industrial revolution. There are two ways to express climate sensitivity: Transient Climate… Read More

They found that models with a strong double ITCZ have a lower value for equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), which indicates that “most models might have underestimated ECS”. If models underestimate ECS, the climate will warm more in response to human-caused emissions than their current projections would suggest.

The causes of the double ITCZ in models are complex, Xiang tells Carbon Brief, and have been the subject of numerous studies. There are likely to be a number of contributing factors, Xiang says, including the way convection is parameterised in models.

For example, a Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper in 2012 suggested that the issue stems from most models not producing enough thick cloud over the “oft-overcast Southern Ocean”, leading to higher-than-usual temperatures over the Southern Hemisphere as a whole, and also a southward shift in tropical rainfall.

As for the question of when scientists might solve this issue, Xiang says it is a tough one to answer:

“From my point of view, I think we may not be able to completely resolve this issue in the coming decade. However, we have made significant progress with the improved understanding of model physics, increased model resolution, and more reliable observations.”

Jet streams

Finally, another common issue in climate models is to do with the position of jet streams in the climate models. Jet streams are meandering rivers of high-speed winds flowing high up in the atmosphere. They can funnel weather systems west to east across the Earth.

As with the ITCZ, climate models recreate jet streams as a result of the fundamental physical equations contained in their code.

However, jet streams often appear to be too “zonal” in models – in other words, they are too strong and too straight, explains Dr Tim Woollings , a lecturer in physical climate science at the University of Oxford and former leader of the joint Met Office-Universities Process Evaluation Group for blocking and storm tracks. He tells Carbon Brief:

“In the real world, the jet veers north a little as it crosses the Atlantic (and a bit the Pacific). Because models underestimate this, the jet is often too far equatorward on average.”

Lottery Billed For Cable TV

The first acting lottery CEO, in the months immediately following Noble’s decision to step down, was then-lottery board chairman Frank Farricker, an appointee of Gov. Dannel P. Malloy. That did not end well.

Farricker, an active Greenwich Democrat, assumed the unpaid role of acting CEO while also retaining his chairman’s position, which led to problems in the following months: Farricker billed the lottery corporation for expenses including his home cable TV bill, and then, in early 2017, he applied to secure the full-time CEO position for himself on a paid basis.

Farricker’s effort to get the paid job subjected him to pointed questions and criticism during investigative hearings by a legislative committee in May 2017 — and soon afterward he resigned as both chairman and interim CEO. Turner then was elevated to the interim CEO job.

In October 2017, Farricker paid $11,318 — a $5,000 fine and $6,318 in restitution to the state — to settle a complaint by the Office of State Ethics that he used his position to receive an “improper financial benefit.”

Just when things seemed to be calming down at the lottery at the end of 2017, New Year’s Day 2018 brought a million-dollar-mistake that has haunted the agency ever since.

A five-member drawing team that selected winners in the New Year's Super Draw game mistakenly excluded 100,000 of 214,601 eligible tickets that had been sold to players. The error resulted in a do-over drawing on Jan. 16 and a loss of about $1 million — along with suspensions of employees and investigations by legislators and government regulators.

The month after that snafu, Turner placed the agency’s $139,000-a-year security director, Alfred DuPuis, on a paid leave pending possible disciplinary action after an internal investigation concluded that he “acted with gross neglect … of his duties” leading up to the flawed Jan. 1 drawing. DuPuis immediately went out on a Family and Medical Leave Act leave, and has not returned to work.

The agency’s human resources director, Jane Rooney, also went out on a leave around the same time — even though she has not been targeted for possible discipline — and as of Thursday was still not back in the office, DeFronzo confirmed.

Megan Ahern, business analyst for Nutmeg State Financial Credit Union, demonstrates the computerized check-in kiosk for driver’s license renewals to be performed in the credit union’s new Milford branch office, starting Thursday, under a contract with the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

Megan Ahern, business analyst for Nutmeg State Financial Credit Union, demonstrates the computerized check-in kiosk for driver’s license renewals to be performed in the credit union’s new Milford branch office, starting Thursday, under a contract with the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

Megan Ahern, business analyst for Nutmeg State Financial Credit Union, demonstrates the computerized check-in kiosk for driver’s license renewals to be performed in the credit union’s new Milford branch office, starting Thursday, under a contract with the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

Megan Ahern, business analyst for Nutmeg State Financial Credit Union, demonstrates the computerized check-in kiosk for driver’s license renewals to be performed in the credit union’s new Milford branch office, starting Thursday, under a contract with the state Department of Motor Vehicles.

U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson toured the home ofMaggie and Vincent Perracchio in Willington on Monday withU.S. Senator Chris Murphy, U.S. Senator Richard Blumenthal, U.S. Representative Joe Courtneyand Lt. Gov. Nancy Wyman to see first hand the crumbling condition of the home's foundation.

U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Ben Carson toured the home ofMaggie and Vincent Perracchio in Willington on Monday withU.S. Senator Chris Murphy, U.S. Senator Richard Blumenthal, U.S. Representative Joe Courtneyand Lt. Gov. Nancy Wyman to see first hand the crumbling condition of the home's foundation.

Rev. Ashley "AJ" Johnson reflects on meeting witih HUD Secretary Ben Carson and Clay Arsenal Apartments residents.

Rev. Ashley "AJ" Johnson reflects on meeting witih HUD Secretary Ben Carson and Clay Arsenal Apartments residents.

Six inmates at the Willard-Cybulski Correctional Institution earned a certificate degree in Advanced Manufacturing Machine Technology from Asnuntuck Community College on Monday morning at the Cybulski Community Reintegration Center in Somers.

Six inmates at the Willard-Cybulski Correctional Institution earned a certificate degree in Advanced Manufacturing Machine Technology from Asnuntuck Community College on Monday morning at the Cybulski Community Reintegration Center in Somers.

Tenants of Clay Arsenal Renaissance Apartments read letters from HUD that were found taped to their doors, the answer to their eleven months of activism

Tenants of Clay Arsenal Renaissance Apartments read letters from HUD that were found taped to their doors, the answer to their eleven months of activism

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